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Summary Of Port Machinery Types

In recent years, as the ports continue to build and expand, it is no longer the equipment we see in bulk and container terminals. Some port equipment with strange shapes and functions have emerged. Let’s review and introduce them together port machinery types:

Bridge crane

It is also called a quay crane. It is equipped on the shore of a container terminal. It is a crane used for loading and unloading operations on the container terminal. It is the heart of the terminal. The crane operation capacity determines the cargo handling capacity of a terminal. The quay crane is the main equipment for loading and unloading containers between the container ship and the front of the terminal. Individual wharves also use the large span and large rear extension of the quay crane to directly carry out yard operations. The loading and unloading capacity and speed of quay cranes directly determine the productivity of terminal operations, so quay cranes are the main equipment for port container loading and unloading. Quayside cranes are constantly being updated and updated with the vigorous development and technological progress of large-scale container transport ships. The technology content is getting higher and higher, and it is moving towards large-scale, high-speed, automated and intelligent, and high reliability, long life, Development in the direction of low energy consumption and environmental protection.
The first generation of bridge cranes can lift 30.5 tons of cargo, with a lifting height of 18 to 20 meters, and can extend 28 meters to the surface of the sea. It uses electric motor generators.
The second-generation bridge crane can lift 35.5 tons of cargo, the lifting height can reach 25 meters, and it can extend 40 meters to the sea surface. It adopts a thyristor DC speed control system.
The third-generation bridge crane can lift 50 tons of heavy goods, can rise to a height of 32 meters, and can extend out to the sea for 50 meters. It adopts an intelligent AC variable frequency drive control system.
The fourth-generation bridge crane can lift 70 tons of cargo, can rise 42 meters, and reach 70 meters forward. It adopts intelligent AC variable frequency drive device.
Operation mode: manual operation, remote operation. The fully automated dock crane is controlled by remote operation, and the efficiency and loading and unloading costs are effectively reduced.

Door crane (gantry crane)

Portal type landline is a common mechanical equipment in bulk cargo wharf. It can be connected with a grab bucket and a hook with a wire rope on the head. The tonnage ranges from 10 tons, 25 tons, 40 tons and even larger tonnage (heavy manufacturing plants such as shipyards). Quick replacement can be achieved through the quick-plug joint at the front of the wire rope. When the hook is installed, various groceries on the ship and on the shore can be loaded and unloaded, and when the grab is installed, the bulk material on the ship can be loaded to the shore. The cargo types that can be operated include bulk grains, bulk ore, bulk cargo, steel and equipment, etc., and different hoppers can be assembled according to different requirements.

Field bridge (gantry crane, tire crane)

Yard bridge refers to the gathering of various goods and containers on the wharf. It is common in the yard behind the container terminal, and the lifting tonnage of the port yard bridge is mostly 41 tons. The bridge owner is controlled by the mechanism at the bottom. Some are controlled by the driver’s cab, and some are controlled by remote control. Using digital frequency conversion speed regulation, it can move in two directions in the container field. Equipped with a telescopic spreader capable of lifting 20-foot and 40-foot containers. The slings of the bridge are mostly fixed guide plates. In order to reduce the sway of the spreader, a mechanical anti-rolling device is installed. In order to facilitate the box, a small-angle rotation device of the spreader is installed. In order to switch the field operation, a right-angle steering mechanism of 00 to 900 is provided. Under normal circumstances, the bridge span has been standardized to 23.47 meters (six rows and walkways), and non-standard span bridges are also available. The lifting height can ensure that a 40-foot-long 9’6” container is lifted over four (or five to six) stacks.
The bridge is supported on large tubeless tires with 4, 8 or 16 wheels. The number of rounds is designed according to the requirements of the field wheel pressure. The trolley traveling mechanism can be four-wheel or two-wheel drive. In order to prevent the collision between the yard bridge and the yard bridge and the container, a manual correction system and four corner anti-collision devices of the cart are provided.
The running machinery of the trolley can be driven by rack type or dual-axis or single-axis drive, and it runs smoothly. There is a cab under the trolley frame, and the driver operates the entire crane in the cab.
The yard bridge adopts AC or DC speed regulation system, which has good speed regulation and constant power control, and can automatically adjust the lifting speed according to the weight of the box.
The power source of the bridge is divided into: diesel engine AC generator set power supply, city electricity drive. As the country’s requirements for environmental protection are becoming more and more stringent, early-stage diesel engines have been technologically transformed and upgraded to electric drive, which reduces pollution on the one hand and saves loading and unloading costs on the other.
The yard bridge is powered by a diesel AC generator set and adopts digital frequency conversion speed regulation, which can move in two directions in the container yard. Equipped with a telescopic spreader capable of lifting 20-foot and 40-foot containers. The slings of the bridge are mostly fixed guide plates. In order to reduce the sway of the spreader, a mechanical anti-rolling device is installed. In order to facilitate the box, a small-angle rotation device of the spreader is installed. In order to switch the field operation, a right-angle steering mechanism of 00 to 900 is provided. Under normal circumstances, the bridge span has been standardized to 23.47 meters (six rows and walkways), and non-standard span bridges are also available. The lifting height can ensure that a 40-foot-long 9’6” container is lifted over four (or five to six) stacks.
The bridge is supported on large tubeless tires with 4, 8 or 16 wheels. The number of rounds is designed according to the requirements of the field wheel pressure. The trolley traveling mechanism can be four-wheel or two-wheel drive. In order to prevent the collision between the yard bridge and the yard bridge and the container, a manual correction system and four corner anti-collision devices of the cart are provided.
The running machinery of the trolley can be driven by rack type or dual-axis or single-axis drive, and it runs smoothly. There is a cab under the trolley frame, and the driver operates the entire crane in the cab.
The yard bridge adopts AC or DC speed regulation system, which has good speed regulation and constant power control, and can automatically adjust the lifting speed according to the weight of the box.
Operation mode: manual operation and remote operation. At present, the fully automated docks and bridges are remotely operated, and one person can take care of 1-3 Odaiba bridges.

Ship unloader

The grab ship unloader is mainly driven by the trolley under the main girder wall to drive the grab, divide the cargo in the cabin back to the upper part of the hopper, and transfer the cargo in the grab to the ground crawler. Generally, the power of the grab ship unloader can be adjusted by the volume of the grab.
The ship unloader is a major loading and unloading equipment at the forefront of the terminal, which plays an important role in the efficiency of the system. Therefore, all major ports are based on the largest ship type docked at the terminal. In order to achieve the maximum productivity of the system, efficient and reliable ship unloaders are selected. At present, most ship unloaders in my country’s coal and ore terminals use grab-type ship unloaders.
The continuous ship unloader can unload continuously, instead of grabbing each hook like a grab ship unloader. In terms of work efficiency, the grab efficiency is higher at the beginning of the work, and the efficiency of the continuous ship unloader will exceed the grab ship unloader when it runs to a certain stage to the later stage. However, the continuous ship unloading opportunity is affected by the ship’s surge and the distribution of materials, so its efficiency is quite different from that of the discontinuous reclaimer. The hopper on the continuous ship unloader can realize the movement of up, down, left and right in three dimensions, and its movement mainly depends on the hydraulic device below. The main unloading contents of continuous ship unloader and grab ship unloader are coal and ore.

Shiploader

The materials conveyed by the ship loader include grain, coal, ore, etc. The boom at its front end is divided into a fixed type and a retractable type.
Ship loader is a large-scale bulk material machinery used in bulk material terminal loading. Generally, the ship loader is composed of a boom belt conveyor, a transition belt conveyor, a telescopic slide, a tail car, a traveling device, a mast, a tower, a pitching device, a slewing device, etc., as shown in the figure. Large-scale port bulk material loading equipment plays an important role in the high-speed, stable, efficient, and rolling development of energy, power, metallurgy, ports and other industries, especially some bulk bulk distribution centers. Ship loader is usually continuous loading operation. Therefore, there must be matching equipment to provide continuous material flow so that the ship loader can be continuously loaded on the ship. Such as the granary feeding of the grain terminal, the continuous feeding of the bucket wheel reclaimer in the material yard of the coal terminal, etc.
Due to the different characteristics of the cargo being loaded and unloaded in the dry bulk terminal, there are also many types of ships, coupled with the influence of the bulk cargo dust, the operating environment is relatively harsh, and there are more stringent requirements on the testing equipment and technology. Therefore, the bulk cargo is currently loaded The ship system has a low degree of automation and basically depends on manual on-site operation. On the one hand, the use of on-site manual operation will endanger the physical and mental health of on-site workers due to the poor working conditions (high temperature, high dust, high noise, etc.) of the bulk cargo terminal. On the other hand, due to the poor working conditions and long-term cargo loading, it is extremely It is easy to cause fatigue of workers and cause accidents during the loading process. In addition, due to manual loading, the operation process will be irregular and unscientific. For example, in order to avoid collision, the chute is suspended above the cabin, causing dust and cargo loss. Because berths are scarce resources of the terminal, the bulk cargo terminal loading process has become one of the bottlenecks restricting the flow of bulk cargo, and an automated shipping system is urgently needed. Therefore, one of the biggest development trends of future ship loader is that the degree of automation will become more and more high.

Container reach stacker

The container reach stacker is a container handling machinery used to complete container loading, unloading, stacking and horizontal transportation operations. It has the advantages of strong maneuverability, high work efficiency, safety, reliability, simple operation, and comfort. It is an ideal loading and unloading machine for cargo yards.
The container reach stacker is mainly divided into single boom and double boom structure. The boom of the single boom container reach stacker is a two-stage telescopic single boom, and the boom is supported by two pitch hydraulic cylinders. Simple, convenient to manufacture, and flexible to operate. It is currently the most widely used form of container reach stacker. The double boom container reach stacker adopts double booms, each boom is supported by a pitching hydraulic cylinder. The two sets of booms can act separately or synchronously, the load distribution of the boom is reasonable, and the spreader works stably Improved performance, but complex structure and poor mobility. Few applications are currently available.

Empty Container Stacker

Empty container stackers are the key equipment for container transportation. Stackers are widely used in the stacking and transfer of empty containers in ports, docks, railway and highway transfer stations and yards. They are quay cranes, yard bridges and reach cranes. The supporting products have the characteristics of high stacking layer, fast stacking and handling speed, high operation efficiency, flexibility and space saving. In recent years, with the rapid development of the domestic logistics industry, the number of containers in various container yards and transfer stations has increased significantly. There has been a problem of narrow and tight space. Expansion of the site is subject to cost and land restrictions. Therefore, all freight yards and transfer stations have considered heights. develop. Various container stacker manufacturers have improved the mast device in their working mechanism to meet user requirements. Now the market has empty container stackers with a lifting height of 20m, stacking 9 layers, and a mast height of 13m.
At present, the market prospects for high-reliability, superior-performance products and mechatronics forklift-stackers equipped with advanced electronic technology are promising. Relying on the development of warehousing, we will develop new products, especially reach forklifts and stackers. Calculator technology has gradually been promoted and applied in electric forklifts, and incorporated into human information control. Unmanned forklifts will be suitable for the needs of toxic or special environments, and have a large space for development.

Container Spreader

Container spreader is a large-scale special machine tool for container loading, unloading and transshipment. It is suitable for freight warehousing, water transportation ports and docks. Because it is a special equipment, it has the characteristics of high reliability, stable operation and high efficiency. It is an important auxiliary tool for lifting equipment.

Floating crane

The floating platform with cranes can be moved to any place needed in the port, or berthed, or moved to an anchorage to make cargo transshipment. Floating cranes can usually lift overweight cargo. Mainly used for loading and unloading large cargo. There are lifting equipment on board, and there are fixed and rotating booms. The lifting weight generally ranges from hundreds of tons to thousands of tons. It can also be used as a port engineering ship.
Crane ships are generally divided into two categories. One is the boom that can rotate 360 ​​degrees, and the other is the jib fixed in one direction on the ship. The whole ship is towed by a tug to steer, or the ship is anchored in all directions. By pulling the anchor chain in different directions, the weight is rotated. The structure and mechanical structure of the former are very complicated, and the lifting capacity is relatively small. Crane ships are also called floating cranes. Used for water lifting and hoisting operations, generally non-self-propelled, but also self-propelled. A crane is installed on the crane. Cranes that frequently operate are usually self-propelled, and their cranes can be rotated. When lifting extremely large items, two cranes can be combined for operation.

Container Straddle Carrier

The container straddle carrier is the main type of container handling equipment, which usually undertakes the horizontal transportation from the front of the terminal to the yard and the stacking of containers in the yard. It straddles the container with a door-shaped frame, and the container is lifted by a hydraulic lifting system equipped with a container spreader for handling, and the container can be stacked two or three stories high. In order to deepen everyone’s understanding of container straddle carriers, this article briefly introduces the advantages and disadvantages of container straddle carriers. According to different functions and heights, container straddle carriers are mainly divided into two types: stacking type and transportation type. Stacking straddle carriers are mainly used for horizontal transportation and stacking operations. The frame structure is relatively tall and can stack 2 to 4 layers of containers. The transport type straddle carrier is mainly used for horizontal transportation operations between the terminal and the yard, and has no stacking function or can only stack one layer of containers.
The advantages of container straddle carriers:
1. Through the straddle carrier, a variety of operations can be completed by one machine, including self-pickup, handling, stacking, loading and unloading, etc., without the assistance of other machinery. It reduces the types and quantities of operation links and terminal machinery and equipment, simplifies the entire loading and unloading transportation system, and facilitates organization and management.
2. The straddle carrier has strong mobility and flexible operation. Compared with traditional horizontal transportation equipment such as container trailers and container automatic guided vehicles, the quay crane only needs to unload the container at the front of the terminal during the operation, and the straddle carrier can grab and transport the container by itself. There is no need for quay cranes to carry out accurate positioning and loading and other related actions such as trucks, which saves operating time and can give full play to the operating efficiency of quay cranes.
Disadvantages of container straddle carriers:
1. The mechanical structure is very complicated, there are many hydraulic components, the failure rate is high, the technical requirements for maintenance personnel are high, the maintenance and operation costs are high, and the overall equipment cost is high.
2. The stacking type straddle carrier has a high and narrow body, a high center of gravity, poor walking stability, and high requirements on the road surface and the driver’s operating level.
3. For container terminals arranged with straddle carriers, due to the large number of yard passages, and the number of layers of containers that can be stacked by straddle carriers, compared to the yard with tire-type or rail-type container gantry cranes, the utilization rate of the yard is Low, and it is more difficult to turn boxes and stacks in the yard. At present, container straddle carriers are widely used in container ports in Europe. The design and construction of specialized container terminals in my country It is poor and there are many problems. Therefore, my country’s specialized container terminals have adopted the RTG scheme from the beginning, and the application of container straddle carriers is very few.

Material Handler Machine

Different grabbers can realize different kinds of cargo loading and unloading by replacing different grab tooling. Generally, grabbers can cover loading and unloading operations to a radius of 35 meters and a depth of 15 meters to achieve 10,000-ton ship operations. For small port operations, compared with The efficiency of portal crane operation can be increased by more than 2.5 times.
Another small-tonnage grabber is generally used for loading and unloading at the back of the bulk cargo terminal. For example, log grabber operations, stacking heights ranging from 6-8 meters, can make full use of the storage yard, reduce inventory accumulation, and increase the storage yard. Usage rate.


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