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Fault Diagnosis And Maintenance Of Port Machinery And Equipment

The fault diagnosis and maintenance management of port machinery and equipment has made great progress. However, with the development of new technologies and the deepening of the complexity of port operations, the fault diagnosis and maintenance management of port machinery has become increasingly automated, intelligent, and The direction of digital development.

1. Status quo of port machinery and equipment and fault research status

Port equipment is mainly divided into two types, large-scale and small-scale loading and unloading machinery and equipment. Small-scale machinery and equipment have a large number and mobility, but the scope of operation is small. On the contrary, there are many types of large-scale machines, which have higher requirements for operation technology, and the scope of operation is scattered. According to the complex and changeable working environment and special nature of port machinery, China has also proposed 10 issues concerning mechanism cracks, diesel engines, wire ropes, hydraulic transmissions, brakes, electrical systems, granaries, monitoring centers, belt longitudinal tears, equipment management and maintenance. A research topic in the direction of reform. At this stage, China has also adopted research on monitoring and fault diagnosis analysis of machinery and equipment in various ports, and has achieved remarkable results. For example, Shanghai Tongji University, Shanghai Port Authority and Haiyuan Company have conducted in-depth research on these 10 reform topics, and some topics have also been incorporated into the national transportation department and Shanghai science and technology projects.

2. Fault diagnosis technology for port machinery and equipment

2.1 Vibration monitoring and diagnosis
Vibration monitoring and diagnosis is based on the vibration characteristics and parameters of the monitored equipment to actively predict and diagnose the type of fault and the operating state of the mechanical equipment. This technical method is also widely used by people. The parameters generated by vibration are multidimensional and extensive, so the cost is low, the energy consumption is small, and the monitoring and diagnosis can be effectively realized.
2.2 Infrared temperature measurement diagnosis
Infrared temperature diagnosis is to determine the type of malfunction and problem of the operation of the mechanical equipment by measuring the temperature changes of the parts of the mechanical equipment. For example, for the wear parts of mechanical parts, the level of oil performance of the hydraulic system, and the blockage of the smoke pipe of the engine, infrared temperature measurement diagnosis can be used for analysis. Ordinary sensors cannot obtain accurate reference data, and only infrared temperature diagnosis can make up for its shortcomings.
2.3 Non-damage monitoring and diagnosis
Non-destructive monitoring and diagnosis are widely used, mainly including ultrasonic flaw detection, radiographic flaw detection, acoustic emission, magnetic particle flaw detection, etc. It mainly aims at the internal three-dimensional faults of mechanical equipment, and judges the location, size and nature of the fault. For example, hidden troubles such as pores, cracks, and trapping in steel machinery and equipment will cause fatigue cracks after long-term stress alternating effects. By adopting non-destructive monitoring and diagnosis technology, manufacturing costs can be reduced, and the reliability and safety of mechanical equipment can be improved.
2.4 Other technologies
Computer technology, electronic technology, wear debris monitoring and diagnosis, stress and strain testing and diagnosis technology, etc.

3. Maintenance measures for port machinery and equipment failures

3.1 Establish the concept of active maintenance
The maintenance work and graded repair of port machinery and equipment mainly include adjustment, inspection, lubrication, and tightening. Traditional maintenance is always carried out after the fact. Even if the remedy comes back after the fact, it still causes varying degrees of damage to the mechanical equipment. Therefore, we must pay attention to prevent failures, take the initiative, regular, and timely repair and maintenance, transform post-maintenance into pre-maintenance, replace major repairs with minor repairs, and extend the service life of mechanical equipment.
3.2 Comprehensive collection of reference data, in-depth troubleshooting of mechanical equipment failures
Mechanical equipment failures are often caused by multiple reasons. Therefore, maintenance personnel must conduct a comprehensive investigation of each link of the diagnosis and each part of the mechanical equipment, improve the performance of the sensor, strengthen the measures of anti-interference information, and avoid data errors. . For example, take the following example of fault diagnosis, look at the preparation and specific analysis of the diagnosis and the method of collecting data.
3.3 Improve the accuracy of mechanical image recognition
Logic analysis and comprehensive information considerations are taken for the images of mechanical equipment, so as to make a comprehensive analysis and improve the logic and rational interpretation of the failure. Adhere to the identification standards, avoid perfunctory testing work, use information standards flexibly, and prevent misuse of standards. Improve the diagnosis rules to avoid misjudgment. Finally, it is necessary to summarize the failure categories and causes of port machinery and equipment, and distinguish the relationship between particularity and universality.
3.4 Improve the technical level and quality of port employees
Due to the uneven density of port operations and the control of port operating costs, some managers will pursue short-term profits too much and greatly streamline the number of personnel involved in the management, maintenance, and repair of machinery and equipment. Moreover, the port operation environment is relatively harsh, the wages of maintenance workers are low, the reward and punishment incentive mechanism is not perfect, the training mechanism of the enterprise is not perfect, and many other reasons have caused the maintenance and management personnel of port machinery and equipment to lose their enthusiasm for work. The large turnover of personnel, especially the lack of senior engineers, mechanical technology and experienced, professional maintenance and management personnel, which greatly restricts the maintenance and management of port machinery and equipment.
3.5 Improve the management system of corresponding machinery and equipment
The focus of mechanical equipment management should be on-site management, real-time control of the actual operating conditions and failure types of on-site equipment, and corresponding solutions. Ports usually operate in the open air. Therefore, in the face of a complex and harsh working environment, companies are required to formulate management systems and regulations, advocate civilized production, have clear rights and responsibilities, and improve the cleanliness and performance of machinery and equipment. Especially for the large-scale machinery and equipment on the general cargo terminal, the management system is directly related to the economic cost and the efficiency of loading and unloading. It is necessary to conduct scientific and reasonable management in accordance with the actual operation, technical strength, scale, piece rate, and staffing of different ports.

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